Y. K. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari and M. S. Feld, Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy, Opt. Exp. 14, 8263, (2006).

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We have developed diffraction phase and fluorescence (DPF) microscopy as a new technique for simultaneous quantitative phase imaging and epi-fluorescence investigation of live cells. The DPF instrument consists of an interference microscope, which is incorporated into a conventional inverted fluorescence microscope. The quantitative phase images are characterized by sub-nanometer optical path-length stability over periods from milliseconds to a cell lifetime. The potential of the technique for quantifying rapid nanoscale motions in live cells is demonstrated by experiments on red blood cells, while the composite phase-fluorescence imaging mode is exemplified with mitotic kidney cells.