A. Ahn, C. Yang, A. Wax, G. Popescu, et al., Harmonic phase dispersion microscope with a Mach-Zender interferometer, Appl. Opt., 44, 1188 (2005).

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Harmonic phase-dispersion microscopy (PDM) is a new imaging technique in which contrast is provided by differences in refractive index at two harmonically related wavelengths. We report a new configuration of the harmonic phase-dispersion microscope in a Mach–Zehnder geometry as an instrument for imaging biological samples. Several improvements on the earlier design are demonstrated, including a single-pass configuration and acousto-optic modulators for generating the heterodyne signals without mechanical arm scanning. We demonstrate quantitative phase-dispersion images of test structures and biological samples.